In the mid-1950s Rock & Roll entered America’s cultural consciousness as music that encapsulated the angst, rebellion and pursuit of personal freedom that framed the lifestyle of the American teenager. Though mostly marketed and branded as a new sub-genre of music, Rock & Roll extended out of a musical genealogy that included country, blues, jazz, and gospel music. Of these genres, the blues–especially variant forms of urban blues that emerged in the decade following World War II–had the most direct influence on early rock culture. Although we often equate the musical experimentation and social rebellion reflected through the rock idiom with male musicians, there were also women who were significant in contributing to the progression of the genre. Through an examination of the musical and professional lives of guitarists Memphis Minnie and Sister Rosetta Tharpe, and vocalist Big Mama Thornton, this lecture will explore the role black women played in creating the performance aesthetic and repertory that defined early Rock culture in America, and later served as the foundation of blues and rock idioms in the U.K. during the 1960s.
Woman with Guitar: Memphis Minnie’s Blues, by Beth Garon and Paul Garon
Singing in My Soul: Black Gospel Music in the Secular Age, by Jerma A. Jackson
Black Diamond Queens: African American Women and Rock and Roll, by Maureen Mahon
Shout, Sister, Shout! The Untold Story of Rock-and-Roll Trailblazer Sister Rosetta Tharpe, by Gayle Wald
Tammy Kernodle’s “Having Her Say: The Black Woman’s Use of the Classic Blues as Lament,” from Women and the Worlds of Music: Past and Present. Editor, Jane Bernstein (pp. 213-231)
1. How would you characterize the sound of early Rock & Roll in the 1950s? How is it similar or different from the transatlantic blues and rock idiom that developed in England during the 1960s?
2. What social factors contributed to the development of variant forms of blues and sacred music during the 1930s and 1940s?
3. What do Memphis Minnie and Sister Rosetta Tharpe represent in terms of black women’s engagement with new forms of music technology?
Great presentation. Very interesting content.